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Borewell Drilling Introduction

After the introduction of borewell in India, borewell has revolutionised the idea of water accessibility. Water scarcity and accessibility being the major issues surrounding agriculture, industry and domestic households; borewell became a one-stop solution.

Borewell Drilling, also known as borehole drill, is a process in which a shaft is inserted as per the required measurement in the drilled hole. Borewell drilling cost is a significant component in the entire process and depends on various variables.

Once you decide to use borewell as you water accessibility tool, it is essential to understand the basics of borewell drilling, borewell drilling cost, types of methods and sustainability of the same.

Borewell vs open well

The choice between a borewell and an open well depends on various parameters like location, Land Structure, Usage, Cost, etc 

Let’s look at the comparison between open wells and borewells and what should be your opt solution:

  • Open wells provide less water compared to borewells.
  • The level of contamination is immense. The water cannot be used for drinking or cooking purpose straightaway.
  • The chances of accidents, kids falling are exceedingly high.
  • The water extraction process from an open well is orthodox. And one needs to draw water using rope and pully. If old people or children need access to water, borewell is the solution.
  • Open wells is not an environment friendly solution, also borewells are a long term solution.


Open Wells were successful in Harappan Civilization. In the present world, borewells is the optimum solution. It provides regular access to water which is clean and safe to use. 

Types of borewell drilling procedure 

It is essential to consider and analyse all possible parameters before deciding on the type of drilling method used. Different methods have varying borewell drilling cost. The decision should be a clever combination of technicalities and borewell drilling cost.

Borewell Drilling has advanced a long way from liquid media to electric drilling. The ancient technique used mud or water to remove the cores out the earth. With the advancement in diesel engines, calyx methods came into use. Calyx method uses rotary drilling to dig the hole. 

Factors considered before adopting a borewell drilling method are:

  • Suitability as per geographical formation (i.e. such as alluvial, bouldery and hard rock)
  • Borewell drilling cost
  • Location of drilling
  • Diameter and depth of borewell
  • Purpose intended for Borewell
  • Environment Sustainability 

Major Classification of types of borewell drilling are 

  • Surface Drilling
  • In well drilling

Other methods are:

  • Compressor Drilling- High Power Hydraulic Air Compressor Machine is used. Generally suitable for soil surface and hard rock.
  • Manual Drilling- also known as Hand Bore- Most suitable for clay or sand
  • Rotary Drilling

Types of drilling procedure as per geographical formation

Different geographical formations require different methods of borewell drilling. It differs for shallow drilling and deep drilling. Separate processes for hard rock and soft rock. Various ways for different formations are :

  1. Water Jetting – For Shallow drilling – alluvial formation
  2. Augur Drilling – For Shallow drilling – alluvial formation
  3. Calyx Drilling – For Shallow borewells -both hard rock and alluvial formation
  4. Percussion Drilling – for deep bores used in bouldery formation
  5. Rotary Drilling – large and deep bores – alluvial formations.
  6. Down the Hole Hammering (DTH) Drilling – large and deep borewells – hard rock formations.

The next step after deciding the type of drilling method to be used is the type of casing required. The next crucial is Casing Pipes. They are inserted into the drilled hole to prevent sand and other contaminants from entering the borewell. Some people tend to compromise on the casing pipes to reduce the borewell drilling cost. This is highly discouraged as it has long term consequences. It will reduce the life of your borewell, increase chances of contamination and thus in return more money influx into borewell drilling cost. 


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